Dr. El-Khoueiry on the Rationale for Evaluating Nivolumab in Advanced HCC

Anthony B. El-Khoueiry, MD
Published: Wednesday, Sep 14, 2016



Anthony B. El-Khoueiry, MD, associate professor of Clinical Medicine, USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, discusses the rationale for evaluating nivolumab in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

There is evidence that supports the evaluation of nivolumab in this setting, says El-Khoueiry. The evidence of CD8 and CD4 T-cell infiltration has been detected in some tumors with HCC. The expression of both inhibitory and stimulatory checkpoints have been expressed in HCC as well.

There are also data that demonstrate that a higher level of infiltration of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes is a good prognostic marker, and is associated with better outcomes for patients. On the other hand, says El-Khoueiry, expression of PD-L1 or PD-L2 on a tumor is associated with worse outcomes.


Anthony B. El-Khoueiry, MD, associate professor of Clinical Medicine, USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, discusses the rationale for evaluating nivolumab in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

There is evidence that supports the evaluation of nivolumab in this setting, says El-Khoueiry. The evidence of CD8 and CD4 T-cell infiltration has been detected in some tumors with HCC. The expression of both inhibitory and stimulatory checkpoints have been expressed in HCC as well.

There are also data that demonstrate that a higher level of infiltration of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes is a good prognostic marker, and is associated with better outcomes for patients. On the other hand, says El-Khoueiry, expression of PD-L1 or PD-L2 on a tumor is associated with worse outcomes.

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