Recent reports published in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) are examining the longterm or delayed health effects of cancer treatments. The studies have shown that childhood cancer survivors who underwent cancer treatments earlier in life are now at an increased risk of heart disease, a second cancer diagnosis, strokes, as well as other potential lifethreatening problems. The CCSS conducted a multi-institutional study of more than 10,000 pediatric cancer patients who were treated between 1970 and 1986 and survived for at least 5 years after their treatment, as well as some 3000 siblings of these patients. The survey showed that 62% of the CCSS cancer survivors developed at least one chronic health condition between 6 and 31 years after their diagnosis. Twenty-eight percent of them developed a severe or lifethreatening health-related problem.