Survival Outcomes May Be Impacted By Socio-Racial Factors in Primary Myelofibrosis


A retrospective analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database emphasized the potential impact of specific socio-racial factors, such as race, sex, and age, on survival outcomes in patients with primary myelofibrosis.

Mohammad Bakri Hammami, MD

Mohammad Bakri Hammami, MD

A retrospective analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database emphasized the potential impact of specific socio-racial factors, such as race, sex, and age, on survival outcomes in patients with primary myelofibrosis, according to findings presented at the 2023 SOHO Annual Meeting.

Data collected from the database between 2000 and 2020 highlighted a median overall survival (OS) of 47 months in the overall population with primary myelofibrosis. Additionally, investigators reported an estimated OS rate of 69% at 2 years and 41% at 5 years.

According to presenting author Mohammad Bakri Hammami, MD, an internal medicine resident at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Jacobi Medical Center, patient age significantly correlated with OS (HR, 1.042; 95% CI, 1.038-1.046; P <.001) in the SEER cohort. Additionally, investigators observed statistically significant worse OS outcomes in male patients compared with their female counterparts (HR, 1.399; 95% CI, 1.277-1.533; P <.001), as well as in Black patients compared with non-Black patients (HR, 1.202; 95% CI, 1.016-1.422; P <.032).

Hammami noted that patients pulled from the SEER database who were diagnosed with primary myelofibrosis after 2011 experienced significantly better survival with respect to cause-specific and all-cause mortality (P = .001). Being married was also a protective factor against all-cause mortality (P = .001).

In a cohort of patients with primary myelofibrosis treated at Montefiore Medical Center, the 2-year and 5-year OS rates, respectively, were 92% and 63%. The most common treatment modalities administered to Black and non-Black patients in the Montefiore cohort, respectively, included ruxolitinib (Jakafi; 50.0% and 43.9%), hydroxyurea (20.0% and 19.5%), and fedratinib (Inrebic; 10.0% and 0.0%). Additionally, 10.0% of Black patients and 14.6% of non-Black patients were treated as part of a clinical trial. Overall, Hammami stated that there were “no real differences” in the rates of treatment modalities between Black and non-Black patients treated at Montefiore.

In an analysis of genetic mutations in patients receiving treatment at Montefiore, Black and non-Black patients, respectively, typically had JAK2 (70% and 78%), CALR (20% and 16%), and ASXL1 (40% and 5%) mutations. According to Hammami, there was a generally similar distribution of genetic mutations in patients regardless of race, which was consistent with prior reports.

“There is a real role for social factors in terms of survival, especially when it comes to Black and non-Black patients,” Hammami said. “There is a need to focus on addressing these factors when we want to provide high-quality care to these patients.”

Investigators retrospectively reviewed socio-racial characteristics as potential determinants of survival in patients with primary myelofibrosis and compared the dataset with single-center outcomes of patients treated at Montefiore Medical Center. Patients with no histological confirmation of disease or active follow up were not included in the analysis. Additionally, investigators assessed medical records from patients treated at Montefiore Medical Center from 2007 to 2023.

Across the 17 SEER registries, investigators assessed data from 5403 patients. The overall population consisted of patients who were White (82.0%), Black (8.4%), and Asian or from the Pacific Islands (7.7%).

Among non-Black and Black patients included in the SEER cohort, respectively, the mean age was 69 years and 64 years (P <.001); most patients were male (60.7% vs 52.1%; P <.001). Additionally, the majority of non-Black patients were married (57.4%), whereas most Black patients were unmarried (63.4%; P <.001). Hammami also highlighted that 55.0% of non-Black patients had an annual income of over $70,000, while 59.6% of Black patients earned less than $70,000 per year.

The Montefiore cohort consisted of 51 patients, including 43 who were censored and 8 who died due to cancer. Additionally, 57% of patients were male, and 49% were married. The median patient age in this cohort was 66 years. The Montefiore population consisted of patients who were White (35%), Black (20%), Asian (10%), or another or unknown race (35%).


Hammami MB, Yang J, Thakur R, et al. Examining racial disparities in the incidence and survival of myelofibrosis: insights from SEER database and an institutional cohort (2000-2020). Presented at: 2023 Society of Hematologic Oncology (SOHO). Annual Meeting; September 6-9, 2023; Houston, TX. Abstract MPN-470.

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