Treatment with the frontline combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab was highly effective in patients with advanced nonâ€“small cell lung cancer who harbored an EGFR T790M mutation.
Rolf A. Stahel, MD
Treatment with the frontline combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab was highly effective in patients with advanced non—small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who harbored an EGFR T790M mutation, according to findings presented at the 2015 European Cancer Congress.1
For those with untreated EGFR T790M-positive NSCLC, the 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate with the combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab was 72.4% (95% CI, 53.4-84.7). The 1-year PFS rate was 49.4% for those who received the combination and were EGFR-mutant but did not have the T790M alteration (95% CI, 33.6-66.6). Median PFS was 16 months in T709M-positive arm (95% CI, 13.1-NE) and 10.5 months without T709M (95% CI, 9.2-16.2).
“The combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab resulted in a one-year PFS rate of 72% in patients with documented T790M mutation and reached our predefined endpoint for success,” explained lead author Rolf A. Stahel, MD, Department of Oncology, University Hospital in Zurich, Switzerland, and current president of ESMO.
Stahel noted that the EGFR T790M gatekeeper mutation is considered to be the main mechanism of acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs, but can also be detected prior to treatment. While conventional DNA sequencing can detect pretreatment T790M in 1% to 8% of tumors, the PCR-PNA assay used in this study improves detection rates to between 35% and 65%.
In the open-label, phase II BELIEF trial, the combination of the angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab and the EGFR TKI erlotinib was explored in 109 patients with metastatic or locally advanced, non-squamous NSCLC who were not candidates for radical surgery or radiotherapy. Patients had measurable disease and centrally confirmed activating EGFR mutations (exon 19 deletion or L858R mutations. All patients were treated with intravenous bevacizumab at 15 mg/kg on day 1 of each 3-week cycle, and oral erlotinib at 150mg daily.
Pretreatment T790M mutations were centrally identified based upon laser microdissection and TaqMan assay, using DNA from T790M-positive cells as a positive control and DNA from PC9 cells, which harbor T790M mutation at an allele frequency of 0.004%, as a negative control. Using this measure, 37 patients tested positive for the T790M alteration while 72 were negative. Each mutational group was treated in separate substudies.
The median age of patients with T790M-mutated NSCLC was 67 years, 63% were female, 70% were never smokers, and 97% had ECOG PS 0-1. Patients without the alteration were a median age of 63 years, 59% were female, 61% never smokers, and 90% had ECOG PS 0-1. At a median follow-up of 12 months, 47 patients remained on treatment (27 with a T790M mutation and 20 without).
The median duration of response (DoR) was not evaluable (95% CI, 14.7-NE) versus 12.0 months (95% CI, 8.2-23.3), for the T790M-positive and -negative groups, respectively. The objective response rate (ORR) in those with the T790M alteration was 70.3% versus 79.2% in the negative group.
Complete response was observed in 8.1% of patients in the T790M-positive group and 5.6% in the negative arm. Partial response was seen in 62.2% versus 73.6% and stable disease was achieved by 23.4% versus 12.5%, in the positive and negative arms, respectively. Progressive disease occurred in none of the patients with T790M-positive disease compared with 4.2% of those with negative tumors.
The safety profile of the combination was consistent with that of each agent; no unexpected toxicities were identified. At least one serious adverse event (SAE) was reported in 16 patients in the T790M-positive group and in 11 patients with T790M-negative disease. The most commonly reported SAE’s in the positive group were each reported by 2 patients and included pancreatitis, confusion, and dehydration. Three patients in the negative group reported a thromboembolic event.
At the conference, lung cancer expert Martin Reck MD, Chief Oncology Physician in the Department of Thoracic Oncology, Hospital Grosshansdorf, Germany, told OncLive that VEGF inhibition by bevacizumab may delay resistance related to T790M mutation and could be beneficial in the presence of this mutation. He noted that characterization of the molecular patterns of resistance following erlotinib/bevacizumab would also be an important issue.
“While these results are very promising, they perhaps will not be directly practice-changing,” Reck said. “Randomized confirmation, such as, by the RELAY trial of erlotininb/ramucirumab versus erlotinib/placebo in patients with NSCLC and EGFR mutation, is important in the decision to change standard treatment in this setting.”
In the randomized phase III RELAY trial, patients with untreated EGFR-mutant NSCLC will receive either the VEGFR2 inhibitor ramucirumab combined with erlotinib or erlotinib alone. However, this study is excluding those with a known EGFR T790M alteration. Recruitment in this study is ongoing, with a goal of enrolling 462 participants (NCT02411448).
In a previous randomized trial, patients received erlotinib plus bevacizumab or erlotinib alone as a first-line treatment for advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC.2 In this 154-patient study, the median PFS with the combination was 16 months compared with 9.7 months with single-agent erlotinib (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.36-0.79; P = .0015). The ORR with the combination was 69% versus 64% with single-agent erlotinib.